Most of the international science-historical research focuses on the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. In contrast, the Centre for the History of Science at the University of Graz focuses on research of the early modern history of science, which overcomes an 'atomisation' of the Early Modern Period and is based on longue durée processes between Renaissance and Enlightenment (1500–1800). Accordingly, research at the Centre pays particular attention to the history of scientific knowledge from ancient to modern times. At the core of these research efforts is the analysis and elaboration of continuities and differences of knowledge in the respective historical-social context. From a methodological point of view, research at the Centre is based on the concept of historical epistemology, which is to be distinguished from forms of social epistemology. The focus of historical epistemology, as it is understood here, is the notion of an epistemic situation, with which an attempt is made to model the reconstruction of scientific knowledge claims.